REFERENCES for “Thyroid science naivety and quackery” posts

These references go with all posts in a 5-part series published April 27, 2019.


(1) Braverman, L. E., & Cooper, D. S. (Eds.). (2013). Werner & Ingbar’s the thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text (10th ed..). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

If you are a doctor, before claiming to be a thyroid expert at an “advanced” level, I highly recommend a browse through this textbook. I would “prescribe” to this man in the video the following chapters:

  • Thyroid hormone synthesis
  • Treatment of hypothyroidism
  • Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis
  • Genetic defects causing hypothyroidism
  • Organ system manifestations of hypothyroidism
  • Effects of drugs on TSH secretion, thyroid hormones absorption, synthesis, metabolism, and action

(2) van Vliet NA, Noordam R, van Klinken JB, et al. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density: Evidence From a Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study and a Candidate Gene Association Study. J Bone Miner Res Off J Am Soc Bone Miner Res. March 2018. doi:10.1002/jbmr.3426

(3) Young, W. F., Gorman, C. A., Jiang, N. S., Machacek, D., & Hay, I. D. (1984). l-Thyroxine contamination of pharmaceutical d-thyroxine: probable cause of therapeutic effect. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 36(6), 781–787. Retrieved from

(3b) Camerman, N., & Camerman, A. (1972). Three-Dimensional Structure of L-Thyroxin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 69(8), 2130–2131. Retrieved from

(3c) Jorgensen, E. C. (1976). Structure activity relationships of thyroxine analogs. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Part B: General and Systematic Pharmacology, 2(4), 661–682.

(4) McConathy, J., & Owens, M. J. (2003). Stereochemistry in Drug Action. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 5(2), 70–73. Retrieved from

(4b) Colucci, P., Yue, C. S., Ducharme, M., & Benvenga, S. (2013). A Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Levothyroxine for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. European Endocrinology, 9(1), 40–47.

(5) Mullur, R., Liu, Y.-Y., & Brent, G. A. (2014). Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism. Physiological Reviews, 94(2), 355–382.

(6) Portman, M. A. (2008). Thyroid hormone regulation of heart metabolism. Thyroid, 18(2), 217. Retrieved from

(7) Hylander, B., & Rosenqvist, U. (1985). Treatment of myxoedema coma–factors associated with fatal outcome. Acta Endocrinologica, 108(1), 65–71. Retrieved from U of C started subscribing in 1994.

(8) Bennett, B. (n.d.). Appeal to Authority. Retrieved April 27, 2019, from

(9) Haretski, A. (n.d.). The Academy of Regenerative Medicine. Retrieved April 27, 2019, from

(10) Przebiegunowani Tv, & Haretski, A. (2019). Problems and causes of THYROID DISEASES – Part 1. Retrieved from

(11) Haugen, B. R. (2009). Drugs that suppress TSH or cause central hypothyroidism. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 23(6), 793–800.

(12) Chatzitomaris, A., Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E., Hering, S., Urban, A., Dietrich, B., … Dietrich, J. W. (2017). Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8.

(13) Kaur, R. J., Mehta, B., Ambwani, S. R., & Gehlot, A. (2013). Effect of calcium channel blockers on the serum levels of thyroid hormone. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2(4), 476.

(14) Somppi, T. L. (2017). Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome in Patients Exposed to Indoor Air Dampness Microbiota Treated Successfully with Triiodothyronine. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

(15) Moura Neto, A., & Zantut-Wittmann, D. E. (2016). Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism during Systemic Illness: The Low T3 Syndrome in Different Clinical Settings. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2016, 2157583.

(15b) Qari, F. A. (2015). Thyroid function status and its impact on clinical outcome in patients admitted to critical care. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(4), 915–919.

(15c) Ataoğlu, H. E., Ahbab, S., Serez, M. K., Yamak, M., Kayaş, D., Canbaz, E. T., … Yenigün, M. (2018). Prognostic significance of high free T4 and low free T3 levels in non-thyroidal illness syndrome. European Journal of Internal Medicine.

(16) Dayan, C. M., & Panicker, V. (2009). Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition-Chapter 5:Changes in TSH, Free T4, and Free T3 Resulting from Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess. In Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine (pp. 47–54). Elsevier Inc.

(17) Kabadi, U. M., & Cech, R. (1997). Normal thyroxine and elevated thyrotropin concentrations: evolving hypothyroidism or persistent euthyroidism with reset thyrostat. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 20(6), 319–326.

(18) Jansen, S. W., Akintola, A. A., Roelfsema, F., van der Spoel, E., Cobbaert, C. M., Ballieux, B. E., … van Heemst, D. (2015). Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism. Scientific Reports, 5, 11525.

(18b) Jansen, S. W., Roelfsema, F., van der Spoel, E., Akintola, A. A., Postmus, I., Ballieux, B. E., … van Heemst, D. (2015). Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 100(10), 3806–3813.

(19) Livadas, S., Bothou, C., Androulakis, I., Boniakos, A., Angelopoulos, N., & Duntas, L. (2018). Levothyroxine Replacement Therapy and Overuse: A Timely Diagnostic Approach. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 28(12).

(19b) Michalaki, M. A., Vagenakis, A., & Markou, K. (2019). Letter to the Editor regarding the article “Levothyroxine Replacement Therapy and Overuse: A Timely Diagnostic Approach.” Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association.

(20) Ajjan, R. A., & Weetman, A. P. (2015). The Pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: Further Developments in our Understanding. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 47(10), 702–710.

(21) Takasu, N., & Matsushita, M. (2012). Changes of TSH-Stimulation Blocking Antibody (TSBAb) and Thyroid Stimulating Antibody (TSAb) Over 10 Years in 34 TSBAb-Positive Patients with Hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-Positive Graves’ Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Reevaluation of TSBAb and TSAb in TSH-Receptor-Antibody (TRAb)-Positive Patients. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2012, 182176.

(21b) Morshed, S. A., & Davies, T. F. (2015). Graves’ Disease Mechanisms: The Role of Stimulating, Blocking, and Cleavage Region TSH Receptor Antibodies. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et Metabolisme, 47(10), 727–734.

(22) Roef, G. L., Rietzschel, E. R., De Meyer, T., & Bekaert, S. (2013). Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in thyroid hormone transporter genes (MCT8, MCT10 and OATP1C1) and circulating thyroid hormones. Clinica Chimica Acta, 425, 227–232.

(23) Sertedaki, A., Voutetakis, A., & Dacou-voutetakis, C. (2005). Molecular Defects in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Leading to Congenital Hypothyroidism. Current Pediatric Reviews, 1(3), 225–233.

(24) Sim, J. S., Baek, J. H., Lee, J., Cho, W., & Jung, S. I. (2017). Radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: depicting early sign of regrowth by calculating vital volume. International Journal of Hyperthermia: The Official Journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group, 33(8), 905–910.

(24b) Medeiros-Neto, G. (2000). Multinodular Goiter. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, K. Dungan, A. Grossman, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext. Retrieved from

(24c) Rudnicki, J., Agrawal, A. K., Jelen, M., Sebastian, M., Sroczyński, M., & Zyśko, D. (2010). Histopathological evaluation of recurrent goiter. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica, 48(3), 430–433.

(25) Gilliland, P. F. (1983). Endocrine emergencies. Adrenal crisis, myxedema coma, and thyroid storm. Postgraduate Medicine, 74(5), 215–220, 225–227.

(26) Tariq, A., Wert, Y., Cheriyath, P., & Joshi, R. (2018). Effects of Long-Term Combination LT4 and LT3 Therapy for Improving Hypothyroidism and Overall Quality of Life. Southern Medical Journal, 111(6), 363–369.

(26b) Hoang, T. D., Olsen, C. H., Mai, V. Q., Clyde, P. W., & Shakir, M. K. M. (2013). Desiccated Thyroid Extract Compared With Levothyroxine in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(5), 1982–1990.

(26c) Sawin, C. T., Hershman, J. M., Fernandez-Garcia, R., Ghazvinian, S., Ganda, O. P., & Azukizawa, M. (1978). A comparison of thyroxine and desiccated thyroid in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Metabolism, 27(10), 1518–1525.

(26d) LeBoff, M. S., Kaplan, M. M., Silva, J. E., & Larsen, P. R. (1982). Bioavailability of thyroid hormones from oral replacement preparations. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 31(9), 900–905.

(26e) Singh, S. P., Feldman, E. B., & Carter, A. C. (1972). Desiccated thyroid and levothyroxine in hypothyroidism: comparison in replacement therapy. New York State Journal of Medicine, 72(9), 1045–1048. Retrieved from

(26f) Utiger, R. D. (1974). Serum triiodothyronine in man. Annual Review of Medicine, 25, 289–302.

(27) Eisenberg, M., & Distefano, J. J. (2009). TSH-based protocol, tablet instability, and absorption effects on L-T4 bioequivalence. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 19(2), 103–110.

(27b) Lowe, J. C. (2009). Stability, Effectiveness, and Safety of Desiccated Thyroid vs Levothyroxine: A Rebuttal to the British Thyroid Association. Thyroid Science, 4(3), C1-12. Retrieved from

(28) Chopra, I. J., Taing, P., & Mikus, L. (1996). Direct Determination of Free Triiodothyronine (T3) in Undiluted Serum by Equilibrium Dialysis/Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Thyroid, 6(4), 255–259.

(28b) Liewendahl, K., Helenius, T., Lamberg, B. A., Mähönen, H., & Wägar, G. (1987). Free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin concentrations in hypothyroid and thyroid carcinoma patients receiving thyroxine therapy. Acta Endocrinologica, 116(3), 418–424. Retrieved from Print only, at Taylor Family Digital Library High Density Library MEDICAL.

(29) Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2013). Is pituitary TSH an adequate measure of thyroid hormone-controlled homoeostasis during thyroxine treatment? European Journal of Endocrinology, 168(2), 271–280.

(30) Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., Dietrich, J. W., & Hoermann, R. (2015). Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency. Endocrine Connections, 4(4), 196–205.

(30b) Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2015). Integration of Peripheral and Glandular Regulation of Triiodothyronine Production by Thyrotropin in Untreated and Thyroxine-Treated Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 47(9), 674–680.

(31) Demartini, B., Masu, A., Scarone, S., Pontiroli, A. E., & Gambini, O. (2010). Prevalence of depression in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism. Panminerva Medica, 52(4), 277–282.

(31b) Touma, K. T. B., Zoucha, A. M., & Scarff, J. R. (2017). Liothyronine for Depression: A Review and Guidance for Safety Monitoring. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(3–4), 24–29. Retrieved from

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