References for Thyrotoxicosis vs. Low TSH series

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July 2019


Anderson, J. L., Jacobs, V., May, H. T., Bair, T. L., Lappé, D. L., Muhlestein, J. B., … Bunch, T. J. (2018). Abstract 11290: Free Thyroxine (fT4) Within the Reference (‘Normal’) Range Predicts Risk of Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation, 138(Suppl_1), A11290–A11290.

Bargi-Souza, P., Goulart-Silva, F., & Nunes, M. T. (2017). Novel aspects of T3 actions on GH and TSH synthesis and secretion: physiological implications. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 59(4), R167–R178.

Baumgartner, C., da Costa, B. R., Collet, T.-H., Feller, M., Floriani, C., Bauer, D. C., … Thyroid Studies Collaboration. (2017). Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation, 136(22), 2100–2116.

Beck-Peccoz, P., Rodari, G., Giavoli, C., & Lania, A. (2017). Central hypothyroidism – a neglected thyroid disorder. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 13(10), 588–598.

Benvenga, S., Klose, M., Vita, R., & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2018). Less known aspects of central hypothyroidism: Part 1 – Acquired etiologies. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology, 14, 25–33.

Braverman, L. E., & Cooper, D. S. (2013). Introduction to thyrotoxicosis. In L. E. Braverman & D. S. Cooper (Eds.), Werner & Ingbar’s the thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text (10th ed..). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

Braverman, L. E., & Utiger, R. D. (2000). Introduction to thyrotoxicosis. In L. E. Braverman & R. D. Utiger (Eds.), Werner & Ingbar’s the thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text. (8th ed., pp. 515–517). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brokken, J. S., Wiersinga, M., & Prummel, F. (2003). Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Associated with Continued Thyrotropin Suppression in Treated Euthyroid Graves’ Disease Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(9), 4135–4138.

Brokken, L. J., Scheenhart, J. W., Wiersinga, W. M., & Prummel, M. F. (2001). Suppression of serum TSH by Graves’ Ig: Evidence for a functional pituitary TSH receptor. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86(10), 4814–4817.

Charalambous, M., & Hernandez, A. (2013). Genomic imprinting of the type 3 thyroid hormone deiodinase gene: Regulation and developmental implications. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830(7), 3946–3955.

Christy, J. H., & Morse, R. S. (1977). Hypothyroid Graves’ disease. The American Journal of Medicine, 62(2), 291–296.

Cole, L. A., Khanlian, S. A., & Muller, C. Y. (2009). Normal production of human chorionic gonadotropin in perimenopausal and menopausal women and after oophorectomy. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer: Official Journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society, 19(9), 1556–1559.

Diana, T., Wüster, C., Kanitz, M., & Kahaly, G. J. (2016). Highly variable sensitivity of five binding and two bio-assays for TSH-receptor antibodies. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 39(10), 1159–1165.

DIETRICH, J. W., TESCHE, A., PICKARDT, C. R., & MITZDORF, U. (2004). Thyrotropic Feedback Control: Evidence for an Additional Ultrashort Feedback Loop from Fractal Analysis. Cybernetics and Systems, 35(4), 315–331.

Dumitrescu, A. M., & Refetoff, S. (2013). The syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830(7), 3987–4003.

Egri, P., Fekete, C., Dénes, Á., Reglődi, D., Hashimoto, H., Fülöp, B. D., & Gereben, B. (2016). Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Regulates the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis via Type 2 Deiodinase in Male Mice. Endocrinology, 157(6), 2356–2366.

Evans, M., Sanders, J., Tagami, T., Sanders, P., Young, S., Roberts, E., … Smith, B. R. (2010). Monoclonal autoantibodies to the TSH receptor, one with stimulating activity and one with blocking activity, obtained from the same blood sample. Clinical Endocrinology, 73(3), 404–412.

Fliers, E., Kalsbeek, A., & Boelen, A. (2014). Beyond the fixed setpoint of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. European Journal of Endocrinology, 171(5), R197-208.

Fliers, E., Wiersinga, W. M., & Swaab, D. F. (1998). Physiological and pathophysiological aspects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in the human hypothalamus. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 8(10), 921–928.

Flier, J. S., Harris, M., & Hollenberg, A. N. (2000). Leptin, nutrition, and the thyroid: The why, the wherefore, and the wiring. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 105(7), 859–861. Retrieved from

Fröhlich, E., & Wahl, R. (2017). Thyroid Autoimmunity: Role of Anti-thyroid Antibodies in Thyroid and Extra-Thyroidal Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

Gałecka, E., Kumor-Kisielewska, A., Orzechowska, A., Maes, M., Górski, P., & Szemraj, J. (2017). Assessment of type 1 and type 3 deiodinase expression levels in depressive disorders. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 77(3), 225–235.

Gelwane, G., de Roux, N., Chevenne, D., Carel, J. C., & Léger, J. (2009). Pituitary-thyroid feedback in a patient with a sporadic activating thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutation: Implication that thyroid-secreted factors other than thyroid hormones contribute to serum TSH levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(8), 2787–2791.

Hoftijzer, C., Heemstra, A., Visser, J., Le Cessie, P., Peeters, M., Corssmit, A., & Smit, A. (2011). The Type 2 Deiodinase ORFa-Gly3Asp Polymorphism (rs12885300) Influences the Set Point of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Patients Treated for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(9), E1527–E1533.

Jonklaas, J., & Burman, K. D. (2016). Daily Administration of Short-Acting Liothyronine Is Associated with Significant Triiodothyronine Excursions and Fails to Alter Thyroid-Responsive Parameters. Thyroid, 26(6), 770–778.

Jonklaas, J., Burman, K. D., Wang, H., & Latham, K. R. (2015). Single Dose T3 Administration: Kinetics and Effects on Biochemical and Physiologic Parameters. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 37(1), 110–118.

Jostel, A., Ryder, W. D. J., & Shalet, S. M. (2009). The use of thyroid function tests in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism: Definition and evaluation of the TSH Index. Clinical Endocrinology, 71(4), 529–534.

Kahaly, G. J., & Diana, T. (2017). TSH Receptor Antibody Functionality and Nomenclature. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8.

Kakita, T., Laborde, N. P., & Odell, W. D. (1984). Autoregulatory control of thyrotropin in rabbits. Endocrinology, 114(6), 2301–2305.

Kakita, T., & Odell, W. D. (1986). Pituitary gland: One site of ultrashort-feedback regulation for control of thyrotropin. The American Journal of Physiology, 250(2 Pt 1), E121-124.

Kalra, S., Khandelwal, S. K., & Goyal, A. (2011). Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(Suppl2), S89–S94.

Kannan, L., Shaw, P. A., Morley, M. P., Brandimarto, J., Fang, J. C., Sweitzer, N. K., … Cappola, A. R. (2018). Thyroid Dysfunction in Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Outcomes. Circulation. Heart Failure, 11(12), e005266.

Kluge, M., Schmidt, D., Uhr, M., & Steiger, A. (2013). Ghrelin suppresses nocturnal secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(9), 1236–1239.

Krassas, G. E., Pontikides, N., Kaltsas, T., Papadopoulou, P., & Batrinos, M. (1994). Menstrual disturbances in thyrotoxicosis. Clinical Endocrinology, 40(5), 641–644.

Krassas, G. E., Pontikides, N., Kaltsas, T., Papadopoulou, P., Paunkovic, J., Paunkovic, N., & Duntas, L. H. (1999). Disturbances of menstruation in hypothyroidism. Clinical Endocrinology, 50(5), 655–659.

Labrie, F., Drouin, J., Ferland, L., Lagacé, L., Beaulieu, M., De léan, A., … Raymond, V. (1978). Mechanism of Action of Hypothalamic Hormones in the Anterior Pituitary Gland and Specific Modulation of Their Activity by Sex Steroids and Thyroid Hormones. In R. O. Greep (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1977 Laurentian Hormone Conference (pp. 25–93).

Ladenson, P. W., Goldenheim, P. D., & Ridgway, E. C. (1983). Rapid pituitary and peripheral tissue responses to intravenous L-triiodothyronine in hypothyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 56(6), 1252–1259.

Lesho, E., & Jones, R. E. (1997). Hypothyroid Graves’ disease. Southern Medical Journal, 90(12), 1201–1203.

Morshed, S. A., & Davies, T. F. (2015). Graves’ Disease Mechanisms: The Role of Stimulating, Blocking, and Cleavage Region TSH Receptor Antibodies. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et Metabolisme, 47(10), 727–734.

Refetoff, S., Bassett, J. H. D., Beck-Peccoz, P., Bernal, J., Brent, G., Chatterjee, K., … Yen, P. M. (2014). Classification and Proposed Nomenclature for Inherited Defects of Thyroid Hormone Action, Cell Transport, and Metabolism. Thyroid, 24(3), 47–409.

Russell, W., Harrison, R. F., Smith, N., Darzy, K., Shalet, S., Weetman, A. P., & Ross, R. J. (2008). Free Triiodothyronine Has a Distinct Circadian Rhythm That Is Delayed but Parallels Thyrotropin Levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93(6), 2300–2306.

Samuels, M. H. (2000). Effects of variations in physiological cortisol levels on thyrotropin secretion in subjects with adrenal insufficiency: A clinical research center study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85(4), 1388–1393.

Schwartz, K. M., Fatourechi, V., Ahmed, D. D. F., & Pond, G. R. (2002). Dermopathy of Graves’ Disease (Pretibial Myxedema): Long-Term Outcome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(2), 438–446.

Scoccia, B., Bernardi, L. A., Alvarez, J. P., Fierro, M. A., & Winston, N. J. (2013). Significant TSH changes induced by estrogen and progesterone administration in hypothyroid patients undergoing preparation for frozen embryo transfer. Fertility and Sterility, 100(3), S475.

Sharma, V., Hays, W. R., Wood, W. M., Pugazhenthi, U., Germain, S., L, D., … Haugen, B. R. (2006). Effects of Rexinoids on Thyrotrope Function and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. Endocrinology, 147(3), 1438–1451.

Tabasum, A., Khan, I., Taylor, P., Das, G., & Okosieme, O. E. (2016). Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports, 2016.

Takasu, N., Yamada, T., Takasu, M., & Komiya, I. (1992). Disappearance of thyrotropin-blocking antibodies and spontaneous recovery from hypothyroidism in autoimmune thyroiditis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 326(8), 513.

Takasu, N., & Matsushita, M. (2012). Changes of TSH-Stimulation Blocking Antibody (TSBAb) and Thyroid Stimulating Antibody (TSAb) Over 10 Years in 34 TSBAb-Positive Patients with Hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-Positive Graves’ Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Reevaluation of TSBAb and TSAb in TSH-Receptor-Antibody (TRAb)-Positive Patients. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2012, 182176.

von Hafe, M., Neves, J. S., Vale, C., Borges-Canha, M., & Leite-Moreira, A. (2019). The impact of thyroid hormone dysfunction on ischemic heart disease. Endocrine Connections.

Wu, D., Guo, R., Guo, H., Li, Y., Guan, H., & Shan, Z. (2018). Resistance to thyroid hormone β in autoimmune thyroid disease: A case report and review of literature. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), 468.

Yu, H., & Farahani, P. (2014). TSH Suppression Post-Therapy in Graves’ Disease: A Systematic Review on Pathophysiology and Clinical Data. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 38(5, Supplement), S4.

Zhang, Z., Boelen, A., Bisschop, P. H., Kalsbeek, A., & Fliers, E. (2017). Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormone. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 458, 143–148.

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