How to calculate LT3 vs. LT4 substitution: Reference List

Chopra et al-1973Part 1:

How to calculate LT3 vs. LT4 substitution: History had it right

Part 2:

How to calculate LT3 vs. LT4 substitution: New thyroid science


Pharmaceutical monographs

Armour Thyroid web page:

Erfa Thyroid monograph, page 8

Pfizer Cytomel monograph, page 12

Mylan Synthroid monograph, page 25

Thyroid scientific literature

Bianco, A. C., Dumitrescu, A., Gereben, B., Ribeiro, M. O., Fonseca, T. L., Fernandes, G. W., & Bocco, B. M. L. C. (2019). Paradigms of Dynamic Control of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Endocrine Reviews, 40(4), 1000–1047.

Biondi, B., & Wartofsky, L. (2014). Treatment with thyroid hormone. Endocrine Reviews, 35(3), 433. 10.1210/er.2013-1083

Celi, F. S., Zemskova, M., Linderman, J. D., Babar, N. I., Skarulis, M. C., Csako, G., … Pucino, F. (2010). The pharmacodynamic equivalence of levothyroxine and liothyronine. A randomized, double blind, cross-over study in thyroidectomized patients. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(5), 709–715.

Celi, F. S., Zemskova, M., Linderman, J. D., Smith, S., Drinkard, B., Sachdev, V., … Pucino, F. (2011). Metabolic effects of liothyronine therapy in hypothyroidism: A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of liothyronine versus levothyroxine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(11), 3466–3474.

Chopra, I. J., Solomon, D. H., & Teco, G. N. C. (1973). Thyroxine: Just a Prohormone or a Hormone Too? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 36(6), 1050–1057.

da Silva Teixeira, S., Filgueira, C., Sieglaff, D. H., Benod, C., Villagomez, R., Minze, L. J., … Nunes, M. T. (2017). 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) reduces blood glucose independently of insulin sensitization in obese mice. Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England), 220(2), 238–250.

Davis, P. J., Davis, F. B., Mousa, S. A., Luidens, M. K., & Lin, H.-Y. (2011). Membrane receptor for thyroid hormone: Physiologic and pharmacologic implications. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 51, 99–115.

Davis, P. J., Tang, H.-Y., Hercbergs, A., Lin, H.-Y., Keating, K. A., & Mousa, S. A. (2018). Bioactivity of Thyroid Hormone Analogs at Cancer Cells. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9.

Diana, T., Krause, J., Olivo, P. D., König, J., Kanitz, M., Decallonne, B., & Kahaly, G. J. (2017). Prevalence and clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-blocking antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 189(3), 304–309.

Dietrich, J. W., Landgrafe, G., & Fotiadou, E. H. (2012). TSH and Thyrotropic Agonists: Key Actors in Thyroid Homeostasis. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2012.

Dietrich, J. W., Tesche, A., Pickardt, C. R., & Mitzdorf, U. (2004). Thyrotropic Feedback Control: Evidence for an Additional Ultrashort Feedback Loop from Fractal Analysis. Cybernetics and Systems, 35(4), 315–331.

Escobar-Morreale, H. F., Obregón, M. J., Hernández, A., Escobar del Rey, F., & Morreale de Escobar, G. (1997). Regulation of Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity as Studied in Thyroidectomized Rats Infused with Thyroxine or Triiodothyronine. Endocrinology, 138(6), 2559–2568.

Feldt-Rasmussen, U., & Rasmussen, Å. K. (2007). Thyroid Hormone Transport and Actions. Diseases of the Thyroid in Childhood and Adolescence, 11, 80–103.

Fröhlich, E., & Wahl, R. (2017). Thyroid Autoimmunity: Role of Anti-thyroid Antibodies in Thyroid and Extra-Thyroidal Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

Fu, J., Fujisawa, H., Follman, B., Liao, X.-H., & Dumitrescu, A. M. (2017). Thyroid Hormone Metabolism Defects in a Mouse Model of SBP2 Deficiency. Endocrinology, 158(12), 4317–4330.

Gereben, B., McAninch, E. A., Ribeiro, M. O., & Bianco, A. C. (2015). Scope and limitations of iodothyronine deiodinases in hypothyroidism. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 11(11), 642–652.

Green, W. L. (1968). Guidelines for the Treatment of Myxedema. Medical Clinics of North America, 52(2), 431–450.

Groeneweg, S., Peeters, R. P., Visser, T. J., & Visser, W. E. (2017). Triiodothyroacetic acid in health and disease. The Journal of Endocrinology, 234(2), R99–R121.

Groeneweg, S., Peeters, R. P., Moran, C., Stoupa, A., Auriol, F., Tonduti, D., … Visser, W. E. (2019). Effectiveness and safety of the tri-iodothyronine analogue Triac in children and adults with MCT8 deficiency: An international, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 7(9), 695–706.

Inamo, Y. (2011). A 5-year-old boy with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis caused by thyroid-stimulation blocking antibodies. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM, 24(7–8), 591–594.

Ito, M., Kawasaki, M., Danno, H., Kohsaka, K., Nakamura, T., Hisakado, M., … Miyauchi, A. (2019). Serum Thyroid Hormone Balance in Levothyroxine Monotherapy-Treated Patients with Atrophic Thyroid After Radioiodine Treatment for Graves’ Disease. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association.

Ito, M., Miyauchi, A., Hisakado, M., Yoshioka, W., Ide, A., Kudo, T., … Amino, N. (2017). Biochemical Markers Reflecting Thyroid Function in Athyreotic Patients on Levothyroxine Monotherapy. Thyroid, 27(4), 484–490.

Ito, M., Miyauchi, A., Hisakado, M., Yoshioka, W., Kudo, T., Nishihara, E., … Nakamura, H. (2019). Thyroid function related symptoms during levothyroxine monotherapy in athyreotic patients. Endocrine Journal.

Ito, M., Miyauchi, A., Morita, S., Kudo, T., Nishihara, E., Kihara, M., … Amino, N. (2012). TSH-suppressive doses of levothyroxine are required to achieve preoperative native serum triiodothyronine levels in patients who have undergone total thyroidectomy. European Journal of Endocrinology, 167, 373–378. 10.1530/EJE-11-1029

Jonklaas, J., & Burman, K. D. (2016). Daily Administration of Short-Acting Liothyronine Is Associated with Significant Triiodothyronine Excursions and Fails to Alter Thyroid-Responsive Parameters. Thyroid, 26(6), 770–778.

Larisch, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Dietrich, J. W., & Hoermann, R. (2018). Symptomatic Relief is Related to Serum Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations during Follow-up in Levothyroxine-Treated Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes: Official Journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association, 126(9), 546–552.

Medina-Gomez, G., Calvo, R.-M., & Obregón, M.-J. (2004). T3 and Triac inhibit leptin secretion and expression in brown and white rat adipocytes. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1682(1–3), 38–47.

Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., Dietrich, J. W., & Hoermann, R. (2015). Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency. Endocrine Connections, 4(4), 196–205.

Refetoff, S. (1975). Thyroid Hormone Therapy. Medical Clinics of North America, 59(5), 1147–1162.

Saberi, M., & Utiger, R. D. (1974). Serum Thyroid Hormone and Thyrotropin concentrations during thyroxine and triiodothyronine therapy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 39(5), 923–927.

Selenkow, H. A., & Rose, L. I. (1976). Comparative clinical pharmacology of thyroid hormones. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Part C: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1(3), 331–349.

Snyder, P. J., & Utiger, R. D. (1972). Inhibition of thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone by small quantities of thyroid hormones. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 51(8), 2077–2084. Retrieved from

Utiger, R. D. (1982). Differing thyrotropin responses to increased serum triiodothyronine concentrations produced by overfeeding and by triiodothyronine administration. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 31(2), 180–183.

Utiger, R. D. (1988). Thyrotropin Measurements: Past, Present, and Future. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 63(10), 1053–1056.

Yavuz, S., Linderman, J. D., Smith, S., Zhao, X., Pucino, F., & Celi, F. S. (2013). The Dynamic Pituitary Response to Escalating-Dose TRH Stimulation Test in Hypothyroid Patients Treated With Liothyronine or Levothyroxine Replacement Therapy. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(5), E862–E866.

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