Reference list for analyzing normal thyroid lab results

This list provides all references in alphabetical order for the following series of posts:

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Abbey, E. J., McGready, J., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., & Mammen, J. S. R. (2021). Thyroid Hormone Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(5), 1283–1290.

Abbey, E. J., McGready, J., Sokoll, L. J., Simonsick, E. M., & Mammen, J. S. R. (2022). Free Thyroxine Distinguishes Subclinical Hypothyroidism From Other Aging-Related Changes in Those With Isolated Elevated Thyrotropin. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13. with supplementary conversion table

Abdalla, S. M., & Bianco, A. C. (2014). Defending plasma T3 is a biological priority. Clinical Endocrinology, 81(5), 633–641.

Ahmed, Z., Ahmed, U., Walayat, S., Ren, J., Martin, D. K., Moole, H., Koppe, S., Yong, S., & Dhillon, S. (2018). Liver function tests in identifying patients with liver disease. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 11, 301–307.

Alexander, E. K., Pearce, E. N., Brent, G. A., Brown, R. S., Chen, H., Dosiou, C., Grobman, W. A., Laurberg, P., Lazarus, J. H., Mandel, S. J., Peeters, R. P., & Sullivan, S. (2017). 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 27(3), 315–389.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 223. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 135(6), e261–e274.

Amouzegar, A., Delshad, H., Mehran, L., Tohidi, M., Khafaji, F., & Azizi, F. (2013). Reference limit of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in thyroperoxidase positive and negative subjects: A population based study. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 36(11), 950–954.

Andersen, S., Bruun, N. H., Pedersen, K. M., & Laurberg, P. (2003). Biologic Variation is Important for Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid, 13(11), 1069–1078.

Andersen, S., Pedersen, K. M., Bruun, N. H., & Laurberg, P. (2002). Narrow Individual Variations in Serum T4 and T3 in Normal Subjects: A Clue to the Understanding of Subclinical Thyroid Disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(3), 1068–1072.

Andersen, I. B., Brasen, C. L., Christensen, H., Noehr-Jensen, L., Nielsen, D. E., Brandslund, I., & Madsen, J. S. (2015). Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification: Results from Selected Biochemical Components. PLoS ONE, 10(10).

Anderson, J. L., Jacobs, V., May, H. T., Bair, T. L., Benowitz, B. A., Lappe, D. L., Muhlestein, J. B., Knowlton, K. U., & Bunch, T. J. (2020). Free thyroxine within the normal reference range predicts risk of atrial fibrillation. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 31(1), 18–29.

Anila, K., Nayak, N., & Jayasree, K. (2016). Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parameters. Journal of Cytology / Indian Academy of Cytologists, 33(3), 145–149.

Ankrah-Tetteh, T., Wijeratne, S., & Swaminathan, R. (2008). Intraindividual variation in serum thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 45(Pt 2), 167–169.

Ashraf, T. S., De Sanctis, V., Yassin, M., Wagdy, M., & Soliman, N. (2017). Chronic anemia and thyroid function. Acta Bio Medica : Atenei Parmensis, 88(1), 119–127.

Assimakopoulos, S. F., Markantes, G. K., Papageorgiou, D., Mamali, I., Markou, K. B., Marangos, M., & Michalaki, M. A. (2021). Low serum TSH in the acute phase of COVID-19 pneumonia: Thyrotoxicosis or a face of “non-thyroidal illness syndrome”? Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 59(11), e420–e423.

Ataoğlu, H. E., Ahbab, S., Serez, M. K., Yamak, M., Kayaş, D., Canbaz, E. T., Çetin, F., Seçmeler, Ş., Şar, F., & Yenigün, M. (2018). Prognostic significance of high free T4 and low free T3 levels in non-thyroidal illness syndrome. European Journal of Internal Medicine.

Atella, V., Piano Mortari, A., Kopinska, J., Belotti, F., Lapi, F., Cricelli, C., & Fontana, L. (2019). Trends in age‐related disease burden and healthcare utilization. Aging Cell, 18(1), e12861.

Aw, T. C., Sickan, J., Shaoqing, X. D., Li, J., Janel, H., & Beshiri, A. (2019). Reference Intervals for TSH on the Architect Analyser Based on the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Guidelines Derived from Healthy Multi-Ethnic Asians Attending a Community Health Fair. Int Arch Endocrinol Clin Res, 5(015).

Bacci, V., Schussler, G. C., & Kaplan, T. B. (1982). The relationship between serum triiodothyronine and thyrotropin during systemic illness. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 54(6), 1229–1235.

Bailey, C. J. (2017). Metformin: Historical overview. Diabetologia, 60(9), 1566–1576.

Bandai, S., Okamura, K., Fujikawa, M., Sato, K., Ikenoue, H., & Kitazono, T. (2019). The long-term follow-up of patients with thionamide-treated Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Endocrine Journal, 66(6), 535–545.

Barhanovic, N. G., Antunovic, T., Kavaric, S., Djogo, A., & Spasojevic, V. K. (2019). Age and Assay Related Changes of Laboratory Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Female Population. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 38(1), 22–32.

Barnett, A. G., van der Pols, J. C., & Dobson, A. J. (2005). Regression to the mean: What it is and how to deal with it. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1), 215–220.

Barth, J. H., Spencer, J. D., Goodall, S. R., & Luvai, A. (2016). Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on Advia Centaur derived from three reference populations and a review of the literature. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 53(3), 385–389.

Bassett, J. H. D., Williams, A. J., Murphy, E., Boyde, A., Howell, P. G. T., Rowan Swinhoe, Marta Archanco, Frédéric Flamant, Jacques Samarut, Sabine Costagliola, Gilbert Vassart, Roy E. Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, & Graham R. Williams. (2008). A Lack of Thyroid Hormones Rather than Excess Thyrotropin Causes Abnormal Skeletal Development in Hypothyroidism. Molecular Endocrinology, 22(2), 501–512.

Beck-Peccoz, P., Rodari, G., Giavoli, C., & Lania, A. (2017). Central hypothyroidism—A neglected thyroid disorder. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 13(10), 588–598.

Benjamin, O., & Lappin, S. L. (2022). End-Stage Renal Disease. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Benvenga, S., Klose, M., Vita, R., & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2018). Less known aspects of central hypothyroidism: Part 1 – Acquired etiologies. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology, 14, 25–33.

Berberich, J., Dietrich, J. W., Hoermann, R., & Müller, M. A. (2018). Mathematical Modeling of the Pituitary–Thyroid Feedback Loop: Role of a TSH-T3-Shunt and Sensitivity Analysis. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9.

Beukhof, C. M., Massolt, E. T., Visser, T. J., Korevaar, T. I. M., Medici, M., de Herder, W. W., Roeters van Lennep, J. E., Mulder, M. T., de Rijke, Y. B., Reiners, C., Verburg, F. A., & Peeters, R. P. (2018). Effects of Thyrotropin on Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Serum Lipids. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 28(2), 168–174.

Bianco, A. C., Dumitrescu, A., Gereben, B., Ribeiro, M. O., Fonseca, T. L., Fernandes, G. W., & Bocco, B. M. L. C. (2019). Paradigms of Dynamic Control of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Endocrine Reviews, 40(4), 1000–1047.

Boulet, J., Massie, E., & Rouleau, J.-L. (2021). Heart Failure With Midrange Ejection Fraction-What Is It, If Anything? The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 37(4), 585–594.

Braithwaite, S. S. (2015). Thyroid Disorders [Chapter 60]. In Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management (4th ed.). Elsevier; Republished by ClinicalGate.

Brokken, J. S., Wiersinga, M., & Prummel, F. (2003). Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Associated with Continued Thyrotropin Suppression in Treated Euthyroid Graves’ Disease Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(9), 4135–4138.

Brown, S. J., Bremner, A. P., Hadlow, N. C., Feddema, P., Leedman, P. J., O’Leary, P. C., & Walsh, J. P. (2016). The log TSH–free T4 relationship in a community-based cohort is nonlinear and is influenced by age, smoking and thyroid peroxidase antibody status. Clinical Endocrinology, 85(5), 789–796.

Brozaitiene, J., Mickuviene, N., Podlipskyte, A., & Burkauskas, J. (2016). Relationship and prognostic importance of thyroid hormone and N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide for patients after acute coronary syndromes: A longitudinal observational study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 16, 45.

Buha, A., Matovic, V., Antonijevic, B., Bulat, Z., Curcic, M., Renieri, E. A., Tsatsakis, A. M., Schweitzer, A., & Wallace, D. (2018). Overview of Cadmium Thyroid Disrupting Effects and Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(5), 1501.


Cannarella, R., Condorelli, R. A., Barbagallo, F., Aversa, A., Calogero, A. E., & La Vignera, S. (2021). TSH lowering effects of metformin: A possible mechanism of action. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 44(7), 1547–1550.

Cao, Y., Blount, B. C., Valentin-Blasini, L., Bernbaum, J. C., Phillips, T. M., & Rogan, W. J. (2010). Goitrogenic anions, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormone in infants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(9), 1332–1337.

Cappelli, C., Rotondi, M., Pirola, I., Agosti, B., Gandossi, E., Valentini, U., De Martino, E., Cimino, A., Chiovato, L., Agabiti-Rosei, E., & Castellano, M. (2009). TSH-Lowering Effect of Metformin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 32(9), 1589–1590.

Calsolaro, V., Niccolai, F., Pasqualetti, G., Tognini, S., Magno, S., Riccioni, T., Bottari, M., Caraccio, N., & Monzani, F. (2019). Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: Who Should Be Treated and How? Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(1), 146–158.

Çavuşoğlu, A. Ç., Bilgili, S., Erkizan, Ö., Arican, H., & Karaca, B. (2010). Thyroid hormone reference intervals and the prevalence of thyroid antibodies. Turk J Med Sci, 40(4), 665–672.

CDC. (2021, April 15). Getting Your Cholesterol Checked. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Chami, R., Moreno-Reyes, R., & Corvilain, B. (2014). TSH measurement is not an appropriate screening test for autonomous functioning thyroid nodules: A retrospective study of 368 patients. European Journal of Endocrinology, 170(4), 593–599.

Chang, Y.-C., Hua, S.-C., Chang, C.-H., Kao, W.-Y., Lee, H.-L., Chuang, L.-M., Huang, Y.-T., & Lai, M.-S. (2019). High TSH Level within Normal Range Is Associated with Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Hypercoagulability, and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Novel Cardiometabolic Marker. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(6), E817.

Chatzitomaris, A., Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E., Hering, S., Urban, A., Dietrich, B., Abood, A., Klein, H. H., & Dietrich, J. W. (2017). Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8.

Choosing Wisely Canada. (n.d.). Understand the gland: A toolkit for appropriate ordering practices of free thyroid hormone testing.

Citterio, C. E., Morishita, Y., Dakka, N., Veluswamy, B., & Arvan, P. (2018). Relationship between the dimerization of thyroglobulin and its ability to form triiodothyronine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 293(13), 4860–4869.

Citterio, C. E., Veluswamy, B., Morgan, S. J., Galton, V. A., Banga, J. P., Atkins, S., Morishita, Y., Neumann, S., Latif, R., Gershengorn, M. C., Smith, T. J., & Arvan, P. (2017). De novo triiodothyronine formation from thyrocytes activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(37), 15434–15444.

Corsonello, A., Montesanto, A., Berardelli, M., De Rango, F., Dato, S., Mari, V., Mazzei, B., Lattanzio, F., & Passarino, G. (2010). A cross-section analysis of FT3 age-related changes in a group of old and oldest-old subjects, including centenarians’ relatives, shows that a down-regulated thyroid function has a familial component and is related to longevity. Age and Ageing, 39(6), 723–727.

Dagan, A., Cleper, R., Krause, I., Blumenthal, D., & Davidovits, M. (2012). Hypothyroidism in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 27(6), 2171–2175.

da Silva, V. A., de Almeida, R. J., Cavalcante, M. P., Pereira Junior, L. A., Reis, F. M., Pereira, M. F., Kasamatsu, T. S., & Camacho, C. P. (2018). Two Thyroid Stimulating Hormone assays correlated in clinical practice show disagreement in subclinical hypothyroidism patients. Clinical Biochemistry, 53, 13–18.

Davis, P. J., Mousa, S. A., & Schechter, G. P. (2018). New Interfaces of Thyroid Hormone Actions With Blood Coagulation and Thrombosis. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 24(7), 1014–1019.

Davis, P. J., Lin, H.-Y., Hercbergs, A. A., Keating, K. A., & Mousa, S. A. (2019). How thyroid hormone works depends upon cell type, receptor type, and hormone analogue: Implications in cancer growth. Discovery Medicine, 27(147), 111–117.

Davis, P. J., Mousa, S. A., & Lin, H.-Y. (2020). Nongenomic Actions of Thyroid Hormone: The Integrin Component. Physiological Reviews, 101(1), 319–352.

Davis, M. G., & Phillippi, J. C. (2022). Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Evidence-Based Treatment. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 67(3), 394–397.

Dayan, C. M., & Panicker, V. (2009). Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition-Chapter 5:Changes in TSH, Free T4, and Free T3 Resulting from Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess. In Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine (pp. 47–54). Elsevier Inc.

De Groot, L. J. (2000, updated 2015). The Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, K. Dungan, A. Grossman, J. M. Hershman, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, R. McLachlan, J. E. Morley, M. New, L. Perreault, J. Purnell, R. Rebar, F. Singer, D. L. Trence, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext., Inc.

Demers, L. M., & Spencer, C. A. (2002). Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease [The National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry]. American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

Diana, T., Krause, J., Olivo, P. D., König, J., Kanitz, M., Decallonne, B., & Kahaly, G. J. (2017). Prevalence and clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-blocking antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 189(3), 304–309.

Diana, T., Olivo, P. D., & Kahaly, G. J. (2018). Thyrotropin Receptor Blocking Antibodies. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 50(12), 853–862.

Dietrich, J. W., Landgrafe-Mende, G., Wiora, E., Chatzitomaris, A., Klein, H. H., Midgley, J. E. M., & Hoermann, R. (2016). Calculated Parameters of Thyroid Homeostasis: Emerging Tools for Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Research. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 7.

Díez, J. J., Iglesias, P., & Burman, K. D. (2005). Spontaneous normalization of thyrotropin concentrations in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(7), 4124–4127.

Dorgalaleh, A., Mahmoodi, M., Varmaghani, B., Kiani node, F., Saeeidi Kia, O., Alizadeh, S., Tabibian, S., Bamedi, T., Momeni, M., Abbasian, S., & Kashani Khatib, Z. (2013). Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 3(2), 73–77.

Effraimidis, G., Watt, T., & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2021). Levothyroxine Therapy in Elderly Patients With Hypothyroidism. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12.

Fast, S., Nielsen, V. E., Bonnema, S. J., & Hegedüs, L. (2010). Dose-dependent acute effects of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) on thyroid size and function: Comparison of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg of rhTSH. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(3), 411–416.

Feelders, R. A., Swaak, A. J. G., Romijn, J. A., Eggermont, A. M. M., Tielens, E. T., Vreugdenhill, G., Endert, E., Eijk, H. G. van, & Berghout, A. (1999). Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental, 48(3), 324–329.

Fekete, C., & Lechan, R. M. (2014). Central Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Under Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions. Endocrine Reviews, 35(2), 159–194.

Fisher, A. J., Medaglia, J. D., & Jeronimus, B. F. (2018). Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(27), E6106–E6115.

Fitzgerald, S. P., Bean, N. G., Falhammar, H., & Tuke, J. (2020). Clinical Parameters Are More Likely to Be Associated with Thyroid Hormone Levels than with Thyrotropin Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 30(12), 1695–1709.

Fliers, E., Bianco, A. C., Langouche, L., & Boelen, A. (2015). Endocrine and metabolic considerations in critically ill patients. The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology, 3(10), 816–825.

Ford, C. (2018, August 17). Interpreting Log Transformations in a Linear Model. University of Virginia Library.

Franklyn, J., & Shephard, M. (2000). Evaluation of Thyroid Function in Health and Disease. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, W. W. de Herder, K. Dhatariya, K. Dungan, J. M. Hershman, J. Hofland, S. Kalra, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, C. S. Kovacs, W. Kuohung, B. Laferrère, M. Levy, E. A. McGee, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext., Inc.

Frasca, F., Piticchio, T., Le Moli, R., Malaguarnera, R., Campennì, A., Cannavò, S., & Ruggeri, R. M. (2021). Recent insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hypophysitis. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 17(11), 1175–1185.

Fröhlich, E., & Wahl, R. (2017). Thyroid Autoimmunity: Role of Anti-thyroid Antibodies in Thyroid and Extra-Thyroidal Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

Ganslmeier, M., Castrop, C., Scheidhauer, K., Rondak, I.-C., & Luppa, P. B. (2014). Regional adjustment of thyroid hormone reference intervals. Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 38(5), 281–287.

Gao, S., Ma, W., Huang, S., Lin, X., & Yu, M. (2021). Predictive Value of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine Ratio in Euthyroid Patients With Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 708216.

Garber, J. R., Cobin, R. H., Gharib, H., Hennessey, J. V., Klein, I. L., Mechanick, J. I., Pessah-Pollack, R., Singer, P. A., & Woeber, K. A. (2012). Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: Cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocrine Practice, 18(6), 988–1028.

Gilmour, J. A., Weisman, A., Orlov, S., Goldberg, R. J., Goldberg, A., Baranek, H., & Mukerji, G. (2017). Promoting resource stewardship: Reducing inappropriate free thyroid hormone testing. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 23(3), 670–675.

Giovanella, L., D’Aurizio, F., Campenni’, A., Ruggeri, R. M., Baldari, S., Verburg, F. A., Trimboli, P., & Ceriani, L. (2016). Searching for the most effective thyrotropin (TSH) threshold to rule-out autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in iodine deficient regions. Endocrine, 54(3), 757–761.

Glyn, T., Harris, B., & Allen, K. (2017). Lessons learnt from a case of missed central hypothyroidism. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports, 2017(1).

Gu, Y., Li, H., Bao, X., Zhang, Q., Liu, L., Meng, G., Wu, H., Du, H., Shi, H., Xia, Y., Su, Q., Fang, L., Yu, F., Yang, H., Yu, B., Sun, S., Wang, X., Zhou, M., Jia, Q., … Niu, K. (2017). The Relationship Between Thyroid Function and the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Euthyroid Subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(2), 434–442.

Gunapalasingham, G., Frithioff-Bøjsøe, C., Lund, M. A. V., Hedley, P. L., Fonvig, C. E., Dahl, M., Pedersen, O., Christiansen, M., Hansen, T., Lausten-Thomsen, U., & Holm, J.-C. (2019). Reference values for fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones in healthy Danish/North-European white children and adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 79(1–2), 129–135.


Hadlow, N. C., Rothacker, K. M., Wardrop, R., Brown, S. J., Lim, E. M., & Walsh, J. P. (2013). The Relationship Between TSH and Free T4 in a Large Population Is Complex and Nonlinear and Differs by Age and Sex. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(7), 2936–2943.

Hamilton, T. E., Davis, S., Onstad, L., & Kopecky, K. J. (2008). Thyrotropin Levels in a Population with No Clinical, Autoantibody, or Ultrasonographic Evidence of Thyroid Disease: Implications for the Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(4), 1224–1230.

Hattori, N., Aisaka, K., Chihara, K., & Shimatsu, A. (2018). Current Thyrotropin Immunoassays Recognize Macro-Thyrotropin Leading to Hyperthyrotropinemia in Females of Reproductive Age. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 28(10), 1252–1260.

Haugen, B. R. (2009). Drugs that suppress TSH or cause central hypothyroidism. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 23(6), 793–800.

Henze, M., Brown, S. J., Hadlow, N. C., & Walsh, J. P. (2017). Rationalizing Thyroid Function Testing: Which TSH Cutoffs Are Optimal for Testing Free T4? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(11), 4235–4241.

Ho, C. K. M., Tan, E. T. H., Ng, M. J., Yeo, G. S. H., Chern, B., Tee, N. W. S., Kwek, K. Y. C., & Tan, K. H. (2017). Gestational age-specific reference intervals for serum thyroid hormone levels in a multi-ethnic population. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 55(11), 1777–1788.

Hoermann, R., & Midgley, J. E. M. (2012). TSH Measurement and Its Implications for Personalised Clinical Decision-Making. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2012, 438037.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2013). Is pituitary TSH an adequate measure of thyroid hormone-controlled homoeostasis during thyroxine treatment? European Journal of Endocrinology, 168(2), 271–280.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2015). Integration of Peripheral and Glandular Regulation of Triiodothyronine Production by Thyrotropin in Untreated and Thyroxine-Treated Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 47(9), 674–680.

Hoermann, R., Larisch, R., Dietrich, J. W., & Midgley, J. E. M. (2016). Derivation of a multivariate reference range for pituitary thyrotropin and thyroid hormones: Diagnostic efficiency compared with conventional single-reference method. European Journal of Endocrinology, 174(6), 735–743.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2016). Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 7.

Hoermann, R., Cheung, A. S., Milne, M., & Grossmann, M. (2017). Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Set Point Alterations Are Associated With Body Composition in Androgen-Deprived Men. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 1(7), 874–885.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. C. (2017). Advances in applied homeostatic modelling of the relationship between thyrotropin and free thyroxine. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0187232.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2019). Individualised requirements for optimum treatment of hypothyroidism: Complex needs, limited options. Drugs in Context, 8, 1–18.

Hoermann, R., Pekker, M. J., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2020). Triiodothyronine secretion in early thyroid failure: The adaptive response of central feedforward control. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50(2), e13192.

Hoermann, R., Pekker, M. J., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2022). Principles of Endocrine Regulation: Reconciling Tensions Between Robustness in Performance and Adaptation to Change. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13.

Hollowell, J. G., Staehling, N. W., Flanders, W. D., Hannon, W. H., Gunter, E. W., Spencer, C. A., & Braverman, L. E. (2002). Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87(2), 489–499.

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