Reference list for analyzing normal thyroid lab results

This list provides all references in alphabetical order for the following series of posts:

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Abbey, E. J., McGready, J., Sokoll, L. J., Simonsick, E. M., & Mammen, J. S. R. (2022). Free Thyroxine Distinguishes Subclinical Hypothyroidism From Other Aging-Related Changes in Those With Isolated Elevated Thyrotropin. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13.

Ahmed, Z., Ahmed, U., Walayat, S., Ren, J., Martin, D. K., Moole, H., Koppe, S., Yong, S., & Dhillon, S. (2018). Liver function tests in identifying patients with liver disease. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 11, 301–307.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 223. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 135(6), e261–e274.

Amouzegar, A., Delshad, H., Mehran, L., Tohidi, M., Khafaji, F., & Azizi, F. (2013). Reference limit of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in thyroperoxidase positive and negative subjects: A population based study. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 36(11), 950–954.

Andersen, S., Bruun, N. H., Pedersen, K. M., & Laurberg, P. (2003). Biologic Variation is Important for Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid, 13(11), 1069–1078.

Andersen, S., Pedersen, K. M., Bruun, N. H., & Laurberg, P. (2002). Narrow Individual Variations in Serum T4 and T3 in Normal Subjects: A Clue to the Understanding of Subclinical Thyroid Disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(3), 1068–1072.

Andersen, I. B., Brasen, C. L., Christensen, H., Noehr-Jensen, L., Nielsen, D. E., Brandslund, I., & Madsen, J. S. (2015). Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification: Results from Selected Biochemical Components. PLoS ONE, 10(10).

Anderson, J. L., Jacobs, V., May, H. T., Bair, T. L., Benowitz, B. A., Lappe, D. L., Muhlestein, J. B., Knowlton, K. U., & Bunch, T. J. (2020). Free thyroxine within the normal reference range predicts risk of atrial fibrillation. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 31(1), 18–29.

Ankrah-Tetteh, T., Wijeratne, S., & Swaminathan, R. (2008). Intraindividual variation in serum thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 45(Pt 2), 167–169.

Aw, T. C., Sickan, J., Shaoqing, X. D., Li, J., Janel, H., & Beshiri, A. (2019). Reference Intervals for TSH on the Architect Analyser Based on the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Guidelines Derived from Healthy Multi-Ethnic Asians Attending a Community Health Fair. Int Arch Endocrinol Clin Res, 5(015).

Barhanovic, N. G., Antunovic, T., Kavaric, S., Djogo, A., & Spasojevic, V. K. (2019). Age and Assay Related Changes of Laboratory Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Female Population. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 38(1), 22–32.

Bassett, J. H. D., Williams, A. J., Murphy, E., Boyde, A., Howell, P. G. T., Rowan Swinhoe, Marta Archanco, Frédéric Flamant, Jacques Samarut, Sabine Costagliola, Gilbert Vassart, Roy E. Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, & Graham R. Williams. (2008). A Lack of Thyroid Hormones Rather than Excess Thyrotropin Causes Abnormal Skeletal Development in Hypothyroidism. Molecular Endocrinology, 22(2), 501–512.

Beck-Peccoz, P., Rodari, G., Giavoli, C., & Lania, A. (2017). Central hypothyroidism—A neglected thyroid disorder. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 13(10), 588–598.

Benjamin, O., & Lappin, S. L. (2022). End-Stage Renal Disease. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Bianco, A. C., Dumitrescu, A., Gereben, B., Ribeiro, M. O., Fonseca, T. L., Fernandes, G. W., & Bocco, B. M. L. C. (2019). Paradigms of Dynamic Control of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Endocrine Reviews, 40(4), 1000–1047.

Boulet, J., Massie, E., & Rouleau, J.-L. (2021). Heart Failure With Midrange Ejection Fraction-What Is It, If Anything? The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 37(4), 585–594.

Braithwaite, S. S. (2015). Thyroid Disorders [Chapter 60]. In Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management (4th ed.). Elsevier; Republished by ClinicalGate.

Brokken, J. S., Wiersinga, M., & Prummel, F. (2003). Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Associated with Continued Thyrotropin Suppression in Treated Euthyroid Graves’ Disease Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(9), 4135–4138.

Brozaitiene, J., Mickuviene, N., Podlipskyte, A., & Burkauskas, J. (2016). Relationship and prognostic importance of thyroid hormone and N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide for patients after acute coronary syndromes: A longitudinal observational study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 16, 45.


Çavuşoğlu, A. Ç., Bilgili, S., Erkizan, Ö., Arican, H., & Karaca, B. (2010). Thyroid hormone reference intervals and the prevalence of thyroid antibodies. Turk J Med Sci, 40(4), 665–672.

CDC. (2021, April 15). Getting Your Cholesterol Checked. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Chang, Y.-C., Hua, S.-C., Chang, C.-H., Kao, W.-Y., Lee, H.-L., Chuang, L.-M., Huang, Y.-T., & Lai, M.-S. (2019). High TSH Level within Normal Range Is Associated with Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Hypercoagulability, and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Novel Cardiometabolic Marker. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(6), E817.

Chatzitomaris, A., Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E., Hering, S., Urban, A., Dietrich, B., Abood, A., Klein, H. H., & Dietrich, J. W. (2017). Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8.

Citterio, C. E., Morishita, Y., Dakka, N., Veluswamy, B., & Arvan, P. (2018). Relationship between the dimerization of thyroglobulin and its ability to form triiodothyronine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 293(13), 4860–4869.

Citterio, C. E., Veluswamy, B., Morgan, S. J., Galton, V. A., Banga, J. P., Atkins, S., Morishita, Y., Neumann, S., Latif, R., Gershengorn, M. C., Smith, T. J., & Arvan, P. (2017). De novo triiodothyronine formation from thyrocytes activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(37), 15434–15444.

Davis, P. J., Mousa, S. A., & Schechter, G. P. (2018). New Interfaces of Thyroid Hormone Actions With Blood Coagulation and Thrombosis. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 24(7), 1014–1019.

Davis, P. J., Lin, H.-Y., Hercbergs, A. A., Keating, K. A., & Mousa, S. A. (2019). How thyroid hormone works depends upon cell type, receptor type, and hormone analogue: Implications in cancer growth. Discovery Medicine, 27(147), 111–117.

Dayan, C. M., & Panicker, V. (2009). Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition-Chapter 5:Changes in TSH, Free T4, and Free T3 Resulting from Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess. In Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine (pp. 47–54). Elsevier Inc.

De Groot, L. J. (2000, updated 2015). The Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, K. Dungan, A. Grossman, J. M. Hershman, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, R. McLachlan, J. E. Morley, M. New, L. Perreault, J. Purnell, R. Rebar, F. Singer, D. L. Trence, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext., Inc.

Dietrich, J. W., Landgrafe-Mende, G., Wiora, E., Chatzitomaris, A., Klein, H. H., Midgley, J. E. M., & Hoermann, R. (2016). Calculated Parameters of Thyroid Homeostasis: Emerging Tools for Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Research. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 7.

Dorgalaleh, A., Mahmoodi, M., Varmaghani, B., Kiani node, F., Saeeidi Kia, O., Alizadeh, S., Tabibian, S., Bamedi, T., Momeni, M., Abbasian, S., & Kashani Khatib, Z. (2013). Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 3(2), 73–77.

Fitzgerald, S. P., Bean, N. G., Falhammar, H., & Tuke, J. (2020). Clinical Parameters Are More Likely to Be Associated with Thyroid Hormone Levels than with Thyrotropin Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 30(12), 1695–1709.

Fröhlich, E., & Wahl, R. (2017). Thyroid Autoimmunity: Role of Anti-thyroid Antibodies in Thyroid and Extra-Thyroidal Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

Ganslmeier, M., Castrop, C., Scheidhauer, K., Rondak, I.-C., & Luppa, P. B. (2014). Regional adjustment of thyroid hormone reference intervals. Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 38(5), 281–287.

Gao, S., Ma, W., Huang, S., Lin, X., & Yu, M. (2021). Predictive Value of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine Ratio in Euthyroid Patients With Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 708216.


Haugen, B. R. (2009). Drugs that suppress TSH or cause central hypothyroidism. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 23(6), 793–800.

Hamilton, T. E., Davis, S., Onstad, L., & Kopecky, K. J. (2008). Thyrotropin Levels in a Population with No Clinical, Autoantibody, or Ultrasonographic Evidence of Thyroid Disease: Implications for the Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(4), 1224–1230.

Hattori, N., Aisaka, K., Chihara, K., & Shimatsu, A. (2018). Current Thyrotropin Immunoassays Recognize Macro-Thyrotropin Leading to Hyperthyrotropinemia in Females of Reproductive Age. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 28(10), 1252–1260.

Ho, C. K. M., Tan, E. T. H., Ng, M. J., Yeo, G. S. H., Chern, B., Tee, N. W. S., Kwek, K. Y. C., & Tan, K. H. (2017). Gestational age-specific reference intervals for serum thyroid hormone levels in a multi-ethnic population. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 55(11), 1777–1788.

Hoermann, R., & Midgley, J. E. M. (2012). TSH Measurement and Its Implications for Personalised Clinical Decision-Making. Journal of Thyroid Research, 2012, 438037.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2015). Integration of Peripheral and Glandular Regulation of Triiodothyronine Production by Thyrotropin in Untreated and Thyroxine-Treated Subjects. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 47(9), 674–680.

Hoermann, R., Larisch, R., Dietrich, J. W., & Midgley, J. E. M. (2016). Derivation of a multivariate reference range for pituitary thyrotropin and thyroid hormones: Diagnostic efficiency compared with conventional single-reference method. European Journal of Endocrinology, 174(6), 735–743.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2016). Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 7.

Hoermann, R., Cheung, A. S., Milne, M., & Grossmann, M. (2017). Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Set Point Alterations Are Associated With Body Composition in Androgen-Deprived Men. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 1(7), 874–885.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. C. (2017). Advances in applied homeostatic modelling of the relationship between thyrotropin and free thyroxine. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0187232.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2019). Individualised requirements for optimum treatment of hypothyroidism: Complex needs, limited options. Drugs in Context, 8, 1–18.

Hoermann, R., Pekker, M. J., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2020). Triiodothyronine secretion in early thyroid failure: The adaptive response of central feedforward control. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50(2), e13192.

Hoermann, R., Pekker, M. J., Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., & Dietrich, J. W. (2022). Principles of Endocrine Regulation: Reconciling Tensions Between Robustness in Performance and Adaptation to Change. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13.

Hong, J., Liu, W.-Y., Hu, X., Chen, W.-W., Jiang, F.-F., Xu, Z.-R., Shen, F.-X., & Zhu, H. (2022). Free Triiodothyronine and Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine Ratio Predict All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 15, 467–476.

Hull, R. P., & Goldsmith, D. J. A. (2008). Nephrotic syndrome in adults. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 336(7654), 1185–1189.

Ijaz, S. H., Jamal, S. M., & Qayyum, R. (2018). Relationship Between Thyroid Hormone Levels and Mean Platelet Count and Volume: Quantitative Assessment. Cureus, 10(10), e3421.

Ikegami, K., & Yoshimura, T. (2017). The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis and biological rhythms: The discovery of TSH’s unexpected role using animal models. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 31.

Ito, M., Miyauchi, A., Hisakado, M., Yoshioka, W., Ide, A., Kudo, T., Nishihara, E., Kihara, M., Ito, Y., Kobayashi, K., Miya, A., Fukata, S., Nishikawa, M., Nakamura, H., & Amino, N. (2017). Biochemical Markers Reflecting Thyroid Function in Athyreotic Patients on Levothyroxine Monotherapy. Thyroid, 27(4), 484–490.

Ito, M., Miyauchi, A., Hisakado, M., Yoshioka, W., Kudo, T., Nishihara, E., Kihara, M., Ito, Y., Miya, A., Fukata, S., Nishikawa, M., & Nakamura, H. (2019). Thyroid function related symptoms during levothyroxine monotherapy in athyreotic patients. Endocrine Journal, 66(11).

Jacobs, A., Derese, I., Vander Perre, S., van Puffelen, E., Verstraete, S., Pauwels, L., Verbruggen, S., Wouters, P., Langouche, L., Garcia Guerra, G., Joosten, K., Vanhorebeek, I., & Van den Berghe, G. (2019). Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome in Critically Ill Children: Prognostic Value and Impact of Nutritional Management. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 29(4), 480–492.

Jansen, H. I., Bruinstroop, E., Heijboer, A. C., & Boelen, A. (2022). Biomarkers indicating tissue thyroid hormone status: Ready to be implemented yet? Journal of Endocrinology, 253(2), R21–R45.

Kadoya, M., Koyama, S., Morimoto, A., Miyoshi, A., Kakutani, M., Hamamoto, K., Kurajoh, M., Shoji, T., Moriwaki, Y., Koshiba, M., Yamamoto, T., Inaba, M., Namba, M., & Koyama, H. (2017). Serum Macro TSH Level is Associated with Sleep Quality in Patients with Cardiovascular Risks – HSCAA Study. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 44387.

Kalra, S., Khandelwal, S. K., & Goyal, A. (2011). Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(Suppl2), S89–S94.

Karmisholt, J., Andersen, S., & Laurberg, P. (2008). Variation in thyroid function tests in patients with stable untreated subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 18(3), 303–308.

Katagiri, R., Yuan, X., Kobayashi, S., & Sasaki, S. (2017). Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies. PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0173722.

Kiel, S., Ittermann, T., Völzke, H., Chenot, J.-F., & Angelow, A. (2020). Frequency of thyroid function tests and examinations in participants of a population-based study. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 70.

Kleinau, G., Neumann, S., Grüters, A., Krude, H., & Biebermann, H. (2013). Novel Insights on Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signal Transduction. Endocrine Reviews, 34(5), 691–724.

Kleinau, G., & Biebermann, H. (2014). Constitutive activities in the thyrotropin receptor: Regulation and significance. Advances in Pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.), 70, 81–119.

Kon, Y. C., Ping Lim, B. S., Lee, Y., Aw, S. E., & Yoke Wong, Y. K. (2020). Agoitrous Graves’ Hyperthyroidism with Markedly Elevated Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin Titre displaying Rapid Response to Carbimazole with Discordant Thyroid Function. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 35(2), 224–232.

Koulouri, O., Auldin, M. A., Agarwal, R., Kieffer, V., Robertson, C., Falconer Smith, J., Levy, M. J., & Howlett, T. A. (2011). Diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in TSH deficiency compared to primary thyroid disease: Pituitary patients are at risk of under-replacement with levothyroxine. Clinical Endocrinology, 74(6), 744–749.

Krassas, G. E., Poppe, K., & Glinoer, D. (2010). Thyroid Function and Human Reproductive Health. Endocrine Reviews, 31(5), 702–755.


Langouche, L., Jacobs, A., & Van den Berghe, G. (2019). Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome Across the Ages. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(12), 2313–2325.

Larisch, R., Midgley, J. E. M., Dietrich, J. W., & Hoermann, R. (2018). Symptomatic Relief is Related to Serum Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations during Follow-up in Levothyroxine-Treated Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes: Official Journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association, 126(9), 546–552.

Li, Y., Chen, D.-N., Cui, J., Xin, Z., Yang, G.-R., Niu, M.-J., & Yang, J.-K. (2016). Using Hashimoto thyroiditis as gold standard to determine the upper limit value of thyroid stimulating hormone in a Chinese cohort. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 16(1), 57.

Li, L.-Z., Hu, Y., Ai, S.-L., Cheng, L., Liu, J., Morris, E., Li, Y., Gou, S.-J., & Fu, P. (2019). The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and nephrotic syndrome: A clinicopathological study. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1–7.

Ling, C., Sun, Q., Khang, J., Felipa Lastarria, M., Strong, J., Stolze, B., Yu, X., Parikh, T., Waldman, M., Welsh, K., Jonklaas, J., Masika, L., & Soldin, S. (2018). Does TSH Reliably Detect Hypothyroid Patients? Annals of Thyroid Research, 4(1), 122–125.

Liu, H., & Peng, D. (2022). Update on dyslipidemia in hypothyroidism: The mechanism of dyslipidemia in hypothyroidism. Endocrine Connections, 11(2).

Mancini, A., Festa, R., Raimondo, S., Pontecorvi, A., & Littarru, G. P. (2011). Hormonal influence on coenzyme Q(10) levels in blood plasma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12(12), 9216–9225.

Mandell, B. F. (2016). Trust the thyroid thermostat. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 83(8), 552–553.

Mariani, L. H., & Berns, J. S. (2012). The Renal Manifestations of Thyroid Disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 23(1), 22–26.

Masood, A., Benabdelkamel, H., Jammah, A. A., Ekhzaimy, A. A., & Alfadda, A. A. (2021). Identification of Protein Changes in the Urine of Hypothyroid Patients Treated with Thyroxine Using Proteomics Approach. ACS Omega, 6(3), 2367–2378.

Meier, C., Trittibach, P., Guglielmetti, M., Staub, J.-J., & Müller, B. (2003). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone in assessment of severity of tissue hypothyroidism in patients with overt primary thyroid failure: Cross sectional survey. BMJ, 326(7384), 311–312.

Midgley, J. E. M., Larisch, R., Dietrich, J. W., & Hoermann, R. (2015). Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency. Endocrine Connections, 4(4), 196–205.

Narkar, R. R., Mishra, I., Baliarsinha, A. K., & Choudhury, A. K. (2021). Rapid Differential Diagnosis of Thyrotoxicosis Using T3/T4 Ratio, FT3/FT4 Ratio and Color Doppler of Thyroid Gland. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 25(3), 193–197.

Nillni, E. A. (2010). Regulation of the Hypothalamic Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) Neuron by Neuronal and Peripheral Inputs. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 31(2), 134–156.

Nowak, C., & Ärnlöv, J. (2020). Kidney Disease Biomarkers Improve Heart Failure Risk Prediction in the General Population. Circulation: Heart Failure, 13(8), e006904.

Obregon, M.-J., Escobar del Rey, F., & Morreale de Escobar, G. (2005). The effects of iodine deficiency on thyroid hormone deiodination. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 15(8), 917–929.

Okosieme, O. E., & Lazarus, J. H. (2019). Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, W. W. de Herder, K. Dhatariya, K. Dungan, J. M. Hershman, J. Hofland, S. Kalra, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, C. S. Kovacs, W. Kuohung, B. Laferrère, M. Levy, E. A. McGee, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext., Inc.


Paragliola, R. M., Di Donna, V., Locantore, P., Papi, G., Pontecorvi, A., & Corsello, S. M. (2019). Factors Predicting Time to TSH Normalization and Persistence of TSH Suppression After Total Thyroidectomy for Graves’ Disease. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10, 95.

Persani, L., Cangiano, B., & Bonomi, M. (2019). The diagnosis and management of central hypothyroidism in 2018. Endocrine Connections.

Pfeffer, M. A., Shah, A. M., & Borlaug, B. A. (2019). Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction In Perspective. Circulation Research, 124(11), 1598–1617.

Premawardhana, L. D. (2017). Thyroid testing in acutely ill patients may be an expensive distraction. Biochemia Medica, 27(2), 300–307.

Rabie, P. (2019, June 18). Planetary Orbits May Explain Mystery of Sun’s 11-Year Cycle. [Note: Further explains solar system metaphor of HPT axis.]

Russell, W., Harrison, R. F., Smith, N., Darzy, K., Shalet, S., Weetman, A. P., & Ross, R. J. (2008). Free Triiodothyronine Has a Distinct Circadian Rhythm That Is Delayed but Parallels Thyrotropin Levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93(6), 2300–2306.

Sarapura, V. D., Gordon, D. F., & Samuels, M. H. (2011). Chapter 6—Thyroid-stimulating Hormone. In S. Melmed (Ed.), The Pituitary (Third Edition) (pp. 167–203). Academic Press.

Spencer, C. A. (updated 2017). Assay of Thyroid Hormones and Related Substances. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, W. W. de Herder, K. Dhatariya, K. Dungan, A. Grossman, J. M. Hershman, J. Hofland, S. Kalra, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, C. S. Kovacs, W. Kuohung, B. Laferrère, E. A. McGee, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext., Inc.

Štěpánek, L., Horáková, D., Štěpánek, L., Janout, V., Janoutová, J., Bouchalová, K., & Martiník, K. (2021). Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4) ratio is strongly associated with insulin resistance in euthyroid and hypothyroid adults: A cross-sectional study. Endokrynologia Polska, 72(1), 8–13.

Suzuki, N., Kawaguchi, A., Yoshimura Noh, J., Yoshimura, R., Mikura, K., Kinoshita, A., Suzuki, A., Mitsumatsu, T., Hoshiyama, A., Fukushita, M., Matsumoto, M., Yoshihara, A., Watanabe, N., Sugino, K., & Ito, K. (2021). Clinical Course of Euthyroid Subjects With Positive TSH Receptor Antibody: How Often Does Graves’ Disease Develop? Journal of the Endocrine Society, 5(6), bvab042.

Tapia, C., & Bashir, K. (2022). Nephrotic Syndrome. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Thambirajah, A. A., Koide, E. M., Imbery, J. J., & Helbing, C. C. (2019). Contaminant and Environmental Influences on Thyroid Hormone Action in Amphibian Metamorphosis. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10.

Tian, L., Song, Y., Xing, M., Zhang, W., Ning, G., Li, X., Yu, C., Qin, C., Liu, J., Tian, X., Sun, X., Fu, R., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Lu, Y., Zou, J., Wang, L., Guan, Q., Gao, L., & Zhao, J. (2010). A novel role for thyroid-stimulating hormone: Up-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase expression through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A/cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element binding protein pathway. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 52(4), 1401–1409.

Thienpont, L. M., Van Uytfanghe, K., Beastall, G., Faix, J. D., Ieiri, T., Miller, W. G., Nelson, J. C., Ronin, C., Ross, H. A., Thijssen, J. H., Toussaint, B., & IFCC Working Group on Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests. (2010). Report of the IFCC Working Group for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests; part 2: Free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Clinical Chemistry, 56(6), 912–920.

Thienpont, L. M., Van Uytfanghe, K., De Grande, L. A. C., Reynders, D., Das, B., Faix, J. D., MacKenzie, F., Decallonne, B., Hishinuma, A., Lapauw, B., Taelman, P., Van Crombrugge, P., Van den Bruel, A., Velkeniers, B., Williams, P., & IFCC Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests (C-STFT). (2017). Harmonization of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Measurements Paves the Way for the Adoption of a More Uniform Reference Interval. Clinical Chemistry, 63(7), 1248–1260.

Timmons, J., & Mukhopadhyay, B. (2020). Hyperthyroxinemia with a non-suppressed TSH: How to confidently reach a diagnosis in this clinical conundrum. Hormones, 19.

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