Reference list for analyzing normal thyroid lab results

This list provides all references in alphabetical order for the following series of posts:

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Abbey, E. J., McGready, J., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., & Mammen, J. S. R. (2021). Thyroid Hormone Supplementation and All-Cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(5), 1283–1290. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17015

Abbey, E. J., McGready, J., Sokoll, L. J., Simonsick, E. M., & Mammen, J. S. R. (2022). Free Thyroxine Distinguishes Subclinical Hypothyroidism From Other Aging-Related Changes in Those With Isolated Elevated Thyrotropin. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2022.858332 with supplementary conversion table

Abdalla, S. M., & Bianco, A. C. (2014). Defending plasma T3 is a biological priority. Clinical Endocrinology, 81(5), 633–641. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.12538

Ahmed, Z., Ahmed, U., Walayat, S., Ren, J., Martin, D. K., Moole, H., Koppe, S., Yong, S., & Dhillon, S. (2018). Liver function tests in identifying patients with liver disease. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 11, 301–307. https://doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S160537

Alexander, E. K., Pearce, E. N., Brent, G. A., Brown, R. S., Chen, H., Dosiou, C., Grobman, W. A., Laurberg, P., Lazarus, J. H., Mandel, S. J., Peeters, R. P., & Sullivan, S. (2017). 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 27(3), 315–389. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2016.0457

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 223. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 135(6), e261–e274. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003893

Amouzegar, A., Delshad, H., Mehran, L., Tohidi, M., Khafaji, F., & Azizi, F. (2013). Reference limit of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in thyroperoxidase positive and negative subjects: A population based study. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 36(11), 950–954. https://doi.org/10.3275/9033

Andersen, S., Bruun, N. H., Pedersen, K. M., & Laurberg, P. (2003). Biologic Variation is Important for Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid, 13(11), 1069–1078. https://doi.org/10.1089/105072503770867237

Andersen, S., Pedersen, K. M., Bruun, N. H., & Laurberg, P. (2002). Narrow Individual Variations in Serum T4 and T3 in Normal Subjects: A Clue to the Understanding of Subclinical Thyroid Disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 87(3), 1068–1072. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.87.3.8165

Andersen, I. B., Brasen, C. L., Christensen, H., Noehr-Jensen, L., Nielsen, D. E., Brandslund, I., & Madsen, J. S. (2015). Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification: Results from Selected Biochemical Components. PLoS ONE, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140475

Anderson, J. L., Jacobs, V., May, H. T., Bair, T. L., Benowitz, B. A., Lappe, D. L., Muhlestein, J. B., Knowlton, K. U., & Bunch, T. J. (2020). Free thyroxine within the normal reference range predicts risk of atrial fibrillation. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 31(1), 18–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/jce.14183

Anila, K., Nayak, N., & Jayasree, K. (2016). Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parameters. Journal of Cytology / Indian Academy of Cytologists, 33(3), 145–149. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9371.188055

Ankrah-Tetteh, T., Wijeratne, S., & Swaminathan, R. (2008). Intraindividual variation in serum thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 45(Pt 2), 167–169. https://doi.org/10.1258/acb.2007.007103

Ashraf, T. S., De Sanctis, V., Yassin, M., Wagdy, M., & Soliman, N. (2017). Chronic anemia and thyroid function. Acta Bio Medica : Atenei Parmensis, 88(1), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v88i1.6048

Assimakopoulos, S. F., Markantes, G. K., Papageorgiou, D., Mamali, I., Markou, K. B., Marangos, M., & Michalaki, M. A. (2021). Low serum TSH in the acute phase of COVID-19 pneumonia: Thyrotoxicosis or a face of “non-thyroidal illness syndrome”? Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 59(11), e420–e423. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2021-0511

Ataoğlu, H. E., Ahbab, S., Serez, M. K., Yamak, M., Kayaş, D., Canbaz, E. T., Çetin, F., Seçmeler, Ş., Şar, F., & Yenigün, M. (2018). Prognostic significance of high free T4 and low free T3 levels in non-thyroidal illness syndrome. European Journal of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.07.018

Atella, V., Piano Mortari, A., Kopinska, J., Belotti, F., Lapi, F., Cricelli, C., & Fontana, L. (2019). Trends in age‐related disease burden and healthcare utilization. Aging Cell, 18(1), e12861. https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.12861

Aw, T. C., Sickan, J., Shaoqing, X. D., Li, J., Janel, H., & Beshiri, A. (2019). Reference Intervals for TSH on the Architect Analyser Based on the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Guidelines Derived from Healthy Multi-Ethnic Asians Attending a Community Health Fair. Int Arch Endocrinol Clin Res, 5(015). https://doi.org/10.23937/2572-407X.1510015

Bacci, V., Schussler, G. C., & Kaplan, T. B. (1982). The relationship between serum triiodothyronine and thyrotropin during systemic illness. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 54(6), 1229–1235. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-54-6-1229

Bailey, C. J. (2017). Metformin: Historical overview. Diabetologia, 60(9), 1566–1576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4318-z

Bandai, S., Okamura, K., Fujikawa, M., Sato, K., Ikenoue, H., & Kitazono, T. (2019). The long-term follow-up of patients with thionamide-treated Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Endocrine Journal, 66(6), 535–545. https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0418

Barhanovic, N. G., Antunovic, T., Kavaric, S., Djogo, A., & Spasojevic, V. K. (2019). Age and Assay Related Changes of Laboratory Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Female Population. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 38(1), 22–32. https://doi.org/10.2478/jomb-2018-0020

Barnett, A. G., van der Pols, J. C., & Dobson, A. J. (2005). Regression to the mean: What it is and how to deal with it. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1), 215–220. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh299

Barth, J. H., Spencer, J. D., Goodall, S. R., & Luvai, A. (2016). Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on Advia Centaur derived from three reference populations and a review of the literature. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 53(3), 385–389. https://doi.org/10.1177/000456321663689

Bassett, J. H. D., Williams, A. J., Murphy, E., Boyde, A., Howell, P. G. T., Rowan Swinhoe, Marta Archanco, Frédéric Flamant, Jacques Samarut, Sabine Costagliola, Gilbert Vassart, Roy E. Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, & Graham R. Williams. (2008). A Lack of Thyroid Hormones Rather than Excess Thyrotropin Causes Abnormal Skeletal Development in Hypothyroidism. Molecular Endocrinology, 22(2), 501–512. https://doi.org/10.1210/me.2007-0221

Beck-Peccoz, P., Rodari, G., Giavoli, C., & Lania, A. (2017). Central hypothyroidism—A neglected thyroid disorder. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 13(10), 588–598. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2017.47

Benjamin, O., & Lappin, S. L. (2022). End-Stage Renal Disease. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499861/

Benvenga, S., Klose, M., Vita, R., & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2018). Less known aspects of central hypothyroidism: Part 1 – Acquired etiologies. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology, 14, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcte.2018.09.003

Berberich, J., Dietrich, J. W., Hoermann, R., & Müller, M. A. (2018). Mathematical Modeling of the Pituitary–Thyroid Feedback Loop: Role of a TSH-T3-Shunt and Sensitivity Analysis. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00091

Beukhof, C. M., Massolt, E. T., Visser, T. J., Korevaar, T. I. M., Medici, M., de Herder, W. W., Roeters van Lennep, J. E., Mulder, M. T., de Rijke, Y. B., Reiners, C., Verburg, F. A., & Peeters, R. P. (2018). Effects of Thyrotropin on Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Serum Lipids. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 28(2), 168–174. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0330

Bianco, A. C., Dumitrescu, A., Gereben, B., Ribeiro, M. O., Fonseca, T. L., Fernandes, G. W., & Bocco, B. M. L. C. (2019). Paradigms of Dynamic Control of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Endocrine Reviews, 40(4), 1000–1047. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2018-00275

Boulet, J., Massie, E., & Rouleau, J.-L. (2021). Heart Failure With Midrange Ejection Fraction-What Is It, If Anything? The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 37(4), 585–594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.11.013

Braithwaite, S. S. (2015). Thyroid Disorders [Chapter 60]. In Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management (4th ed.). Elsevier; Republished by ClinicalGate. https://clinicalgate.com/thyroid-disorders-2/

Brokken, J. S., Wiersinga, M., & Prummel, F. (2003). Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Associated with Continued Thyrotropin Suppression in Treated Euthyroid Graves’ Disease Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(9), 4135–4138. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-030430

Brown, S. J., Bremner, A. P., Hadlow, N. C., Feddema, P., Leedman, P. J., O’Leary, P. C., & Walsh, J. P. (2016). The log TSH–free T4 relationship in a community-based cohort is nonlinear and is influenced by age, smoking and thyroid peroxidase antibody status. Clinical Endocrinology, 85(5), 789–796. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.13107

Brozaitiene, J., Mickuviene, N., Podlipskyte, A., & Burkauskas, J. (2016). Relationship and prognostic importance of thyroid hormone and N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide for patients after acute coronary syndromes: A longitudinal observational study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 16, 45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757967/

Buha, A., Matovic, V., Antonijevic, B., Bulat, Z., Curcic, M., Renieri, E. A., Tsatsakis, A. M., Schweitzer, A., & Wallace, D. (2018). Overview of Cadmium Thyroid Disrupting Effects and Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(5), 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051501

C-G

Cannarella, R., Condorelli, R. A., Barbagallo, F., Aversa, A., Calogero, A. E., & La Vignera, S. (2021). TSH lowering effects of metformin: A possible mechanism of action. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 44(7), 1547–1550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01445-9

Cao, Y., Blount, B. C., Valentin-Blasini, L., Bernbaum, J. C., Phillips, T. M., & Rogan, W. J. (2010). Goitrogenic anions, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormone in infants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(9), 1332–1337. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901736

Cappelli, C., Rotondi, M., Pirola, I., Agosti, B., Gandossi, E., Valentini, U., De Martino, E., Cimino, A., Chiovato, L., Agabiti-Rosei, E., & Castellano, M. (2009). TSH-Lowering Effect of Metformin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 32(9), 1589–1590. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0273

Calsolaro, V., Niccolai, F., Pasqualetti, G., Tognini, S., Magno, S., Riccioni, T., Bottari, M., Caraccio, N., & Monzani, F. (2019). Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: Who Should Be Treated and How? Journal of the Endocrine Society, 3(1), 146–158. https://doi.org/10.1210/js.2018-00207

Çavuşoğlu, A. Ç., Bilgili, S., Erkizan, Ö., Arican, H., & Karaca, B. (2010). Thyroid hormone reference intervals and the prevalence of thyroid antibodies. Turk J Med Sci, 40(4), 665–672. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-0906-62

CDC. (2021, April 15). Getting Your Cholesterol Checked. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/cholesterol_screening.htm

Chami, R., Moreno-Reyes, R., & Corvilain, B. (2014). TSH measurement is not an appropriate screening test for autonomous functioning thyroid nodules: A retrospective study of 368 patients. European Journal of Endocrinology, 170(4), 593–599. https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-13-1003

Chang, Y.-C., Hua, S.-C., Chang, C.-H., Kao, W.-Y., Lee, H.-L., Chuang, L.-M., Huang, Y.-T., & Lai, M.-S. (2019). High TSH Level within Normal Range Is Associated with Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Hypercoagulability, and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Novel Cardiometabolic Marker. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(6), E817. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060817

Chatzitomaris, A., Hoermann, R., Midgley, J. E., Hering, S., Urban, A., Dietrich, B., Abood, A., Klein, H. H., & Dietrich, J. W. (2017). Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00163

Choosing Wisely Canada. (n.d.). Understand the gland: A toolkit for appropriate ordering practices of free thyroid hormone testing. https://choosingwiselycanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CWC_T3T4_Toolkit_V1.pdf

Citterio, C. E., Morishita, Y., Dakka, N., Veluswamy, B., & Arvan, P. (2018). Relationship between the dimerization of thyroglobulin and its ability to form triiodothyronine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 293(13), 4860–4869. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.001786

Citterio, C. E., Veluswamy, B., Morgan, S. J., Galton, V. A., Banga, J. P., Atkins, S., Morishita, Y., Neumann, S., Latif, R., Gershengorn, M. C., Smith, T. J., & Arvan, P. (2017). De novo triiodothyronine formation from thyrocytes activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(37), 15434–15444. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.784447

Corsonello, A., Montesanto, A., Berardelli, M., De Rango, F., Dato, S., Mari, V., Mazzei, B., Lattanzio, F., & Passarino, G. (2010). A cross-section analysis of FT3 age-related changes in a group of old and oldest-old subjects, including centenarians’ relatives, shows that a down-regulated thyroid function has a familial component and is related to longevity. Age and Ageing, 39(6), 723–727. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq116

Dagan, A., Cleper, R., Krause, I., Blumenthal, D., & Davidovits, M. (2012). Hypothyroidism in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 27(6), 2171–2175. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfr665

da Silva, V. A., de Almeida, R. J., Cavalcante, M. P., Pereira Junior, L. A., Reis, F. M., Pereira, M. F., Kasamatsu, T. S., & Camacho, C. P. (2018). Two Thyroid Stimulating Hormone assays correlated in clinical practice show disagreement in subclinical hypothyroidism patients. Clinical Biochemistry, 53, 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2017.12.005

Davis, P. J., Mousa, S. A., & Schechter, G. P. (2018). New Interfaces of Thyroid Hormone Actions With Blood Coagulation and Thrombosis. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 24(7), 1014–1019. https://doi.org/10.1177/1076029618774150

Davis, P. J., Lin, H.-Y., Hercbergs, A. A., Keating, K. A., & Mousa, S. A. (2019). How thyroid hormone works depends upon cell type, receptor type, and hormone analogue: Implications in cancer growth. Discovery Medicine, 27(147), 111–117.

Davis, P. J., Mousa, S. A., & Lin, H.-Y. (2020). Nongenomic Actions of Thyroid Hormone: The Integrin Component. Physiological Reviews, 101(1), 319–352. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00038.2019

Davis, M. G., & Phillippi, J. C. (2022). Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Evidence-Based Treatment. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 67(3), 394–397. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.13358

Dayan, C. M., & Panicker, V. (2009). Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Their Relationship to Iodine Nutrition-Chapter 5:Changes in TSH, Free T4, and Free T3 Resulting from Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess. In Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine (pp. 47–54). Elsevier Inc.

De Groot, L. J. (2000, updated 2015). The Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, K. Dungan, A. Grossman, J. M. Hershman, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, R. McLachlan, J. E. Morley, M. New, L. Perreault, J. Purnell, R. Rebar, F. Singer, D. L. Trence, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext. MDText.com, Inc. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285570/

Demers, L. M., & Spencer, C. A. (2002). Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease [The National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry]. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. https://www.aacc.org/science-and-research/practice-guidelines/thyroid-disease

Diana, T., Krause, J., Olivo, P. D., König, J., Kanitz, M., Decallonne, B., & Kahaly, G. J. (2017). Prevalence and clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-blocking antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 189(3), 304–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.12980

Diana, T., Olivo, P. D., & Kahaly, G. J. (2018). Thyrotropin Receptor Blocking Antibodies. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 50(12), 853–862. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0723-9023

Dietrich, J. W., Landgrafe-Mende, G., Wiora, E., Chatzitomaris, A., Klein, H. H., Midgley, J. E. M., & Hoermann, R. (2016). Calculated Parameters of Thyroid Homeostasis: Emerging Tools for Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Research. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2016.00057

Díez, J. J., Iglesias, P., & Burman, K. D. (2005). Spontaneous normalization of thyrotropin concentrations in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(7), 4124–4127. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2005-0375

Dorgalaleh, A., Mahmoodi, M., Varmaghani, B., Kiani node, F., Saeeidi Kia, O., Alizadeh, S., Tabibian, S., Bamedi, T., Momeni, M., Abbasian, S., & Kashani Khatib, Z. (2013). Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 3(2), 73–77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3915449/

Effraimidis, G., Watt, T., & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2021). Levothyroxine Therapy in Elderly Patients With Hypothyroidism. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2021.641560

Fast, S., Nielsen, V. E., Bonnema, S. J., & Hegedüs, L. (2010). Dose-dependent acute effects of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) on thyroid size and function: Comparison of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg of rhTSH. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(3), 411–416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03650.x

Feelders, R. A., Swaak, A. J. G., Romijn, J. A., Eggermont, A. M. M., Tielens, E. T., Vreugdenhill, G., Endert, E., Eijk, H. G. van, & Berghout, A. (1999). Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental, 48(3), 324–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0495(99)90080-X

Fekete, C., & Lechan, R. M. (2014). Central Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Under Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions. Endocrine Reviews, 35(2), 159–194. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2013-1087

Fisher, A. J., Medaglia, J. D., & Jeronimus, B. F. (2018). Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(27), E6106–E6115. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711978115

Fitzgerald, S. P., Bean, N. G., Falhammar, H., & Tuke, J. (2020). Clinical Parameters Are More Likely to Be Associated with Thyroid Hormone Levels than with Thyrotropin Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association, 30(12), 1695–1709. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0535

Fliers, E., Bianco, A. C., Langouche, L., & Boelen, A. (2015). Endocrine and metabolic considerations in critically ill patients. The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology, 3(10), 816–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00225-9

Ford, C. (2018, August 17). Interpreting Log Transformations in a Linear Model. University of Virginia Library. https://data.library.virginia.edu/interpreting-log-transformations-in-a-linear-model/

Franklyn, J., & Shephard, M. (2000). Evaluation of Thyroid Function in Health and Disease. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, A. Boyce, G. Chrousos, W. W. de Herder, K. Dhatariya, K. Dungan, J. M. Hershman, J. Hofland, S. Kalra, G. Kaltsas, C. Koch, P. Kopp, M. Korbonits, C. S. Kovacs, W. Kuohung, B. Laferrère, M. Levy, E. A. McGee, … D. P. Wilson (Eds.), Endotext. MDText.com, Inc. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285546/

Frasca, F., Piticchio, T., Le Moli, R., Malaguarnera, R., Campennì, A., Cannavò, S., & Ruggeri, R. M. (2021). Recent insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hypophysitis. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 17(11), 1175–1185. https://doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2021.1974297

Fröhlich, E., & Wahl, R. (2017). Thyroid Autoimmunity: Role of Anti-thyroid Antibodies in Thyroid and Extra-Thyroidal Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00521

Ganslmeier, M., Castrop, C., Scheidhauer, K., Rondak, I.-C., & Luppa, P. B. (2014). Regional adjustment of thyroid hormone reference intervals. Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 38(5), 281–287. https://doi.org/10.1515/labmed-2014-0008

Gao, S., Ma, W., Huang, S., Lin, X., & Yu, M. (2021). Predictive Value of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine Ratio in Euthyroid Patients With Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 708216. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.708216

Garber, J. R., Cobin, R. H., Gharib, H., Hennessey, J. V., Klein, I. L., Mechanick, J. I., Pessah-Pollack, R., Singer, P. A., & Woeber, K. A. (2012). Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: Cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocrine Practice, 18(6), 988–1028. https://doi.org/10.4158/EP12280.GL

Gilmour, J. A., Weisman, A., Orlov, S., Goldberg, R. J., Goldberg, A., Baranek, H., & Mukerji, G. (2017). Promoting resource stewardship: Reducing inappropriate free thyroid hormone testing. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 23(3), 670–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12698

Giovanella, L., D’Aurizio, F., Campenni’, A., Ruggeri, R. M., Baldari, S., Verburg, F. A., Trimboli, P., & Ceriani, L. (2016). Searching for the most effective thyrotropin (TSH) threshold to rule-out autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in iodine deficient regions. Endocrine, 54(3), 757–761. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-1094-3

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