HPT axis

Four types of unstable thyroid function in the elderly

Diagnostic concepts like “subclinical hypothyroidism” have become cognitive barriers to understanding the adaptations and dysfunctions of the aging hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Thyroid diagnostic categories are usually based on whether TSH and FT4 are in range, above range, or below range,… Read More ›

Gullo: LT4 monotherapy and thyroid loss invert FT3 and FT4 per unit of TSH

In 2011, Gullo’s research team published a landmark study in thyroid therapy titled “Levothyroxine Monotherapy Cannot Guarantee Euthyroidism in All Athyreotic Patients.” Gullo and colleagues examined the TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and the FT3:FT4 ratios of 1,811 thyroidless patients… Read More ›

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