Healthy thyroid axis

Four types of unstable thyroid function in the elderly

Diagnostic concepts like “subclinical hypothyroidism” have become cognitive barriers to understanding the adaptations and dysfunctions of the aging hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Thyroid diagnostic categories are usually based on whether TSH and FT4 are in range, above range, or below range,… Read More ›

Gullo: LT4 monotherapy and thyroid loss invert FT3 and FT4 per unit of TSH

In 2011, Gullo’s research team published a landmark study in thyroid therapy titled “Levothyroxine Monotherapy Cannot Guarantee Euthyroidism in All Athyreotic Patients.” Gullo and colleagues examined the TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and the FT3:FT4 ratios of 1,811 thyroidless patients… Read More ›

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